Your temperament is like an artist's canvas. It is your basic inherited style. It is the fabric underlying who you are. Generally speaking, two of the basic temperament types are outgoing or extroverted and two are more inward directed or introverted. This varies based on temperament blend and our individual personality development.
Your personality is like the painting on the canvas. It is what you have built on top of your temperament. Two people with like temperament may be very different in actual behavior. Factors that affect personality include socialization, education, birth order, siblings or lack of siblings and interpersonal pressures will cause us to adapt and change our behaviors.
Why study temperaments?
Understanding temperament - your own and others - make you much better equipped to handle interpersonal relationships successfully. Studying your own temperament helps you understand your strengths and weaknesses and why you do some of the things you do. Understanding another's temperament can help you adapt your communication to theirs or, at the least, understand why you have problems with them.